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Sunday, August 30, 2015

Medical Use Of Maggots/Survival Food Source

Maggots in medicine Ancient therapy making comeback as wound-healing option


These aren't your grandfather's maggots.

Maggot, or larval, therapy has been around since ancient times as a way to heal wounds. Now, the method has gone high-tech--in some ways--and it's being tested in a rigorous clinical trial at the Malcom Randall Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center in Gainesville, Fla. Recruitment is now underway.

The study involves veterans with chronic diabetic ulcers on their feet. The maggots feasting on the dead or dying tissue in their wounds--and eating germs in the process--have been sterilized in a pristine, pharmaceutical-grade lab. Instead of roaming free over the wounds, they are contained in fine mesh bags, and removed after a few days.

Welcome to maggot therapy, 2015.

"There's an eight-step quality-control process to how these medicinal maggots are produced," notes lead investigator Dr. Linda Cowan. "Every batch is quality-tested."

Cowan has a Ph.D. in nursing science and is a wound-care specialist with VA and the University of Florida. She has studied maggots in the lab, combed through the available research on them, and seen firsthand what they can do in wounds.

"As a clinician, I was very impressed by the literature on larval therapy. And sometimes we would have patients come into the clinic with what I call 'free range' maggots--they're not sterile, they're not produced specifically for medicinal purposes--the patients got them at home, unintentionally. But they really clean out the wound nicely."

Cowan, like other researchers, tends to prefer the scientific term "larvae" over "maggots," but they mean the same thing. The whitish worm-like creatures are young flies, before they mature into pupa and then into adults. For therapy, in most countries, the green bottle fly is the insect of choice.

Co-investigator Dr. Micah Flores, whose background is in entomology--the study of bugs--admits that "maggot" does have a negative connotation for most folks. "It can be a scary word," he says.

Cowan points out that in the study's recruitment flyer "we use the term 'medicinal maggots.' We want people to know these are not home-grown on somebody's windowsill."

The VA study will involve up to 128 Veterans. It's comparing maggot therapy with the standard of care for diabetic wounds--a treatment called sharp debridement, in which a health care provider uses a scalpel, scissors, or other tool to cut or scrape away dead or unhealthy tissue. The procedure promotes wound healing.

Nearly a quarter of VA patients have diabetes, and about a quarter of these will have foot wounds related to the disease. In many cases, the hard-to-heal ulcers worsen to the point where gangrene develops and amputation is required.

The Gainesville researchers will examine how well the wounds heal in each study group. They'll also look at maggots' effects on harmful bacteria. In addition to clearing out dead tissue, maggots disinfect wounds by ingesting bacteria and secreting germ-killing molecules. They also eat through biofilm--a slimy mix of micro-organisms found on chronic wounds.

Turn back the clock about 90 years, and there was a researcher who grew maggots on a hospital windowsill, as unscientific as that sounds. Dr. William Baer had treated U.S. soldiers in France during World War I and noticed that large, gaping wounds that were swarming with maggots--sometimes thousands of the creatures--didn't get infected, and the men survived.

Baer came back to Johns Hopkins University and experimented with the therapy, only to realize that maggots could spread disease as they devoured decaying tissue. Two of his patients died of tetanus. He made some progress with using sterilized maggots, but soon antibiotics would come on the scene and maggot therapy--with its high yuck factor--fell into disregard.

"Antibiotics were the new cure-all, and so we didn't need the maggots around too much anymore," says Cowan. "But they've never gone away completely."

A few studies took place in the U.S. in the ladder half of the last century, including some at the VA Medical Center in Long Beach, Calif. But it wasn't enough to place maggots in the pantheon of modern medical miracles. Meanwhile, the therapy continued to attract interest in the United Kingdom, where a game-changer occurred a few years ago. A Wales-based company called BioMonde came out with the bag concept, which caught Cowan's attention right away.

She had been interested in studying maggot therapy. But she also realized that many clinicians, as well as patients--and their caregivers at home, who would have to change dressings--might have a hard time warming up to the idea.

"When we started talking about doing this study," says Cowan, "we were interested in the yuck factor. One of my concerns was other clinicians. They have to deal with this. They may be turned off by what I call the squirmy wormies."

Cowan recalls one nurse colleague who would recoil when patients showed up in the clinic with wounds that had attracted a few maggots.

"She just had an aversion to larvae of any kind. When a patient would come in, and they would have these free-range maggots, she would not want to deal with them. She would come and get me, and I would take care of it.

"I realized she wouldn't be the only clinician out there who would feel like this. So I thought this product would really make a difference."

That said, Cowan believes many patients are undeterred by the insects, bags or no bags. She tells of one veteran who has been struggling with a non-healing diabetic ulcer for three years. "He said he is willing to try anything that might work."

That attitude is not uncommon among those with diabetic sores, says Cowan, although she senses that veterans, as a group, may be a bit less squeamish than the general population, and thus even more receptive to the therapy.

"When we go through the informed consent form with them, we explain the study and we tell them they could be randomized to the 'sharp' group, which is the standard of care, the same kind of debridement they've gotten in the past--or they could get the maggot therapy. We've done about 21 informed consents so far. Overwhelmingly, people have been disappointed if they weren't randomized to the maggot group."

BioMonde, the company sponsoring the trial, has said it will provide maggots for up to two weeks of treatment for any patient who did not receive the therapy during the study but wants it, and whose physician believes it would be appropriate.

Both groups in the study will receive treatment over the course of eight days. Along with studying the veteran patients and their wounds, the researchers will survey their caregivers and clinical providers. "One thing we want to find out," says Cowan, "is whether this yuck factor is really an issue. And who is it the greatest issue for? Patients? Clinicians? The wife or husband who has to change the dressing?"

To examine the main study outcome, the team will photograph each wound before and after each treatment. Then, wound-care experts who are blinded to which therapy was used--maggots or sharp debridement--will visually assess how much viable versus non-viable tissue remains.

Just as important, the team will study the therapies' effects on biofilms. A biofilm is not a movie about someone's life--it's a soupy mix of bacteria and other germs that resides on or in a wound. Experts believe it may be part of why some wounds--such as diabetic ulcers--are so difficult to heal. Cowan's group has studied biofilms in the lab, grown on pieces of pig skin, and she says the maggots are the only therapy that appears to completely eradicate them.

"A biofilm is a party of poly-microbial organisms," explains Cowan. "It could be bacteria, fungus, virus--all of them. They spit out a protective coating that protects them from things you would put on the wound, like an antiseptic gel. Also, it protects them from things you might take inside the body systemically, like antibiotics. So it's tough to get rid of these biofilms.

"You can debride with a scalpel, and you can cut away what looks like dead or unhealthy tissue, but you can't see biofilm. And if you don't completely get rid of a biofilm growth, within 24 to 72 hours it can completely regenerate, with its protective coating."

Cowan collaborated with Dr. Gregory Schultz on numerous studies involving biofilms at UF's Institute for Wound Research.

"Both independently and collaboratively, we tested quite a number of products," says Cowan. "We tried all kinds of expensive things. There were some that were more promising than others. We would get some good, favorable results. But there was nothing that was getting rid of everything--until we tested the maggots."

The group published a 2013 study in the journal Ulcers that included before-and-after pictures, taken with an electron scanning microscope, attesting to the maggots' handiwork.

"The results were mind-blowing," says Cowan. "The photos show the difference with the larvae at 24 and 48 hours. At 24 hours there were hardly any [bacteria] to count, and at 48 hours the biofilm was completely gone. Not one organism left."

She points out another benefit of the maggots, versus drug treatment: "It's hard for bacteria or other organisms to develop a resistance to something that's going to eat them." Drug-resistant bacteria are a huge problem in U.S. heath care.

Flores, the entomologist, wants to peek inside the maggots, to see what they've ingested. After they are removed from a wound, the bagged maggots are being frozen for later analysis. (Not in the same freezer where the lab crew keeps their Haagen-Dazs, by the way.)

"My background is studying insects--flies in particular," says Flores. "So I'm very interested in what's inside the larval gut, what they've been feeding on. Are they picking up the same organisms we're seeing growing on the wound? Does it match up?"

Flores and Cowan say theirs is the first study to do this type of analysis. And there should be plenty to look at: Between dead tissue, bacteria, and biofilm--an all-you-can-eat buffet for maggots--they take in enough grub to noticeably blow up in size.

"They do a great job," says Cowan. "They plump up to the size of a small jelly bean, whereas when they go in, they're smaller than a grain of rice. So it's pretty impressive."

The team is also looking at biomarkers of wound healing as another study outcome. Enzymes known as MMPs, for example, rise in response to inflammation. Levels drop as a wound heals.

Pending the study results, Cowan hopes to see maggot therapy catch on in the U.S. as an evidence-based way to treat wounds--not just diabetic ulcers, but other types as well. One example might be deep skin wounds in combat veterans. She's already gotten calls from plastic surgeons interested in the therapy.

"If the maggots can clean up a wound, they can possibly make advanced therapies more effective so you don't have to repeat them. For example, if you take a skin graft from the leg and put it on the belly, if that wound has a chronic biofilm, that graft is not going to take. But if you clean it up and then do the skin graft, it may take. What a win-win that would be."

[Source: EurekAlert, The Global Source for Science News, 17 August 2015]

Charlie's Comments: "I have heard of this type of treatment being used in third world countries where there is limited supply of antibiotics. The treatment seems to be very effective if supervised correctly. Who knows, one day we may have to resort to using this type of treatments."

P.S. Don't overlook the maggot as a source of food. Check out the video below that I recently viewed on youtube and learn how to safely prepare them for eating.

Stay Prepared! Stay Alive!


Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Tee-Pee Style Survival Shelter

The Tee-Pee (Tipi) shelter has been around for ages. It is a simple design that can house many people depending on its size. Native Americans have used this design throughout the many areas of the United States.

Wood is plentiful in forest areas and the frames are using transported to the next location when tribes had to move.

To make this style shelter, you will need an ax for bow saw to cut the lodge poles. Lodge pole is the name given to the long poles of the frame that will hold the covering. The covering was usually made from buffalo hide or some other type of animal skins. Very seldom did you see an outer covering made from cloth or canvas, which would have been very scarce back in those days.

The lodge poles need to be at least 10 feet long and 4 inches in diameter. Eight lodge poles is enough to make a good long term survival Tee-Pee.

The frame is started by laying 3 poles on the ground and then tying the top narrow ends together. The frame is then stood up and each leg of the poles are equally spread out in a circle. The remaining poles are then placed evenly around the frame and tied off at the top.

An ideal outer covering for the frame would be a tarp, or old parachute that would cover the entire dwelling. But, in the event there is none, you would need to resort to covering the outer frame with pine or juniper boughs and tree bark as shown in the video.

Leave an opening at the top of the shelter to allow smoke to escape the shelter should you opt for a small fire inside. The opening can be covered if it starts to rain.

In the video, the fire will be outside near the entrance. A wooden wall is built to reflect the heat back into the shelter and to help block the wind. A door can be made to cover the entrance for colder days.

Make sure when placing the brush covering on the frame that you secure them in place. If not, the winds could blow them off leaving holes in your shelter.

This shelter is for long term stays in the wilderness. As each day passes, you should be upgrading the shelter by adding more external padding and improving on your bedding.

Be very, very careful when using a fire with this type shelter, it could catch fire quickly. You do not need a very big fire with this shelter. Keep the fire small as it will help conserve your precious fire wood.

Stay Prepared! Stay Alive!


Tuesday, August 18, 2015

Forked Twitch Up Snare

Forked Twitch-up Snare

This version of the Twitch Up Snare I call the Forked Twitch Up Snare. It may be called something else, but not sure. 

This is a good snare to use when you have good game trails and plenty of young saplings. If saplings are not available, but only stout tree limbs, you can use a large rock or log as the engine. Just tie the heavy object to the end of the cordage where the sapling would normally be and then throw the other end of a tree limb and set your snare.

For the game animal you are attempting to snare, make sure your forked stake is strong enough to withstand the pull of the sapling (engine). The two legs should be able to be pounded into the ground without breaking and deep enough not to be pulled out of the ground by the engine.

If you plan on using this design, make it larger in size to account for the size of the animal.

The noose end of the snare can be placed under the bait stick, as shown in the above photo, or can be draped over the bait stick so that when the prey sticks its head up to the bait and removes it, its head gets caught in the noose.

You can use chunks of cactus, prickly pear fruit, peanut butter, fresh vegetables, berries or other similar appetizers as bait for this trap. If at all possible, and if available, use gloves when setting this trap. Animals have a keen sense of smell and if they smell human scent, they may not attempt to take the bait.

After setting the trap, wait about 5 minutes to make sure the forked stake does not pull out of the ground, if it does, make a longer stake and reset it.

Setting 6 or more of these traps is your best chance of catching something. Make sure you place foliage or stones on the sides of the trails to funnel the prey into the snare.

Always check your traps daily for prey. It is a waste of food and inhumane to leave an animal in a trap, especially if it is still alive and suffering. 

When you leave the area, release all your traps. If you are still in a survival situation, take your snares with you to use a your new location.

Stay Prepared! Stay Alive!


Thursday, August 13, 2015

Another Avoidable Survival Tragedy

Another Avoidable Survival Tragedy

From the Associated Press, an article on a avoidable tragedy that occurred in my back yard.

"Two tourists from France have been found dead after hiking in New Mexico's White Sands National Monument, but a young boy was rescued, authorities said Thursday.

The child was found alive and treated for heat exposure Tuesday when the daytime temperature at the monument was 101 degrees Fahrenheit (38.33 Celsius), park rangers said.

Authorities didn't immediately release the names and ages of the three, their hometown in France or their relationship to one another.

Park rangers were on patrol about 1 ½ miles from the Alkali Flat trail-head when they found the woman's body about 5:30 p.m. Tuesday.

They said the dead man and surviving child were located about half an hour later by monument and Alamogordo emergency personnel.

The deaths are being investigated by the Otero County Sheriff's Office in New Mexico.

French authorities have been notified and are assisting in the case.

The White Sands National Monument, located about 16 miles (25.75 kilometers) southwest of Alamogordo, is known for its white sand dunes composed of gypsum crystals.

Authorities recommend that visitors to the monument only take summer hikes in the early morning or early evening when the temperature is a bit cooler because there is no shade or water along any of the trails."

"I am not trying to belittle the dead, but this was just too avoidable. The average human needs about one ounce of water for every two pounds of body weight, just for an average day. If you consider hiking and direct exposure to the Sun, you may as well triple that water requirement.

These people were likely dehydrated before even starting out on their hike. I'll just bet they were found without any water on their person.

I basically live next to White Sands National monument and have walked the white Gypsum Dunes many times. Imagine walking up and down hill in heavy sand and you'll begin to know the physical exertion required to traverse this area, which would have aggravated dehydration.

This couple likely became disoriented as well and, as likely, could not get their bearings.

They should have picked out a landmark in the distant and periodically looked to that landmark to maintain their position as they hiked the Monument. They should have used their cell phone to call the Ranger's office to report an emergency before it ever got as far as they did.

If they could have explained what make/model their vehicle was, the Park Rangers could have picked up their trail there and help would have been arriving soon after that.

And it simply does not pay to wander from your vehicle without any survival kit and water.

Even if you planned on walking one mile away then coming right back, what if you fell and broke your leg? What if you failed to tell anyone where you were going? It may be 24-72 hour before someone starts looking for you or finds you - that is plenty of time to die."- Charlie!

Stay Prepared! Stay Alive!


Friday, August 7, 2015

Christmas Cactus For Survival

The Christmas Cactus or Opuntia leptocaulis has many names.  (Pencil Cholla, Desert Christmas Cactus, Christmas Cholla, Garambullo, Tasadijillo, Tasajillo, Tesage, Rat-tail Cactus, Slender Stem Cactus)

The fruit is suitable for human consumption. Several native tribes made it part of a traditional diet. Martin Terry, associate professor of biology at Sul Ross State University, says the tunas are “vaguely sweet,” with a taste similar to the fruit of a prickly pear.

“They don’t taste bad, if you’re willing to deal with the spines,” Terry says.

Glochids can be scraped off with a knife or burned off with a lighter. Rolling fruits in campfire coals is another way of removing the stickers. But given their small size, dining on tasajillo tunas is a lot of work for little reward. For most of us, it’s best to appreciate this cactus from a distance, admiring the way those red globes brighten the winter landscape.

Tasajillo can grow from seed, but it’s more likely to spread by cloning itself. Opuntioid cacti have jointed stems, arranged in segments that can easily detach without damaging the rest of the plant. The joints are dotted with areoles, a specialized type of bud that’s peculiar to the cactus family. Spines, flowers and new branches arise from areoles.

A stem joint that comes in contact with soil can take root and grow into a whole new plant. So tasajillo’s habit of hitching rides on hikers, bikers, cattle, horses and furry predators is an effective way to increase its numbers. It can take over large areas in grazing lands, where many ranchers consider it a nuisance.

Areoles appear even on the fruit of this cactus. It’s not uncommon to see new stem segments growing out of a tuna that has hung on through winter and into spring. And where there are areoles, there are spines. On the fruit, these take the form of tiny, barbed glochids.  [source:]

These berries do have an intoxicating effect, which varies between different people. I would use caution if you plan on eating these if you are dehydrated or you have a weak immune system. In this case, I would instead use them as bait to catch other game like rabbits or quail. Do your own research prior to eating these fruits.

Stay Prepared! Stay Alive!